中国主要蜜源作物上登记的农药品种及其中杀虫剂对蜜蜂的初级风险评估
投稿时间:2017-07-11      点此下载全文 HTML
引用本文:廖建华,程燕,卜元卿,谭丽超,周军英,单正军,等.中国主要蜜源作物上登记的农药品种及其中杀虫剂对蜜蜂的初级风险评估[J].农药学学报,2018,20(1):100-109.
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作者单位E-mail
廖建华 环境保护部 南京环境科学研究所, 南京 210042  
程燕 环境保护部 南京环境科学研究所, 南京 210042 chynies@163.com 
卜元卿 环境保护部 南京环境科学研究所, 南京 210042
南京信息工程大学 江苏省大气环境与装备技术协同创新中心, 南京 210044 
 
谭丽超 环境保护部 南京环境科学研究所, 南京 210042  
周军英 环境保护部 南京环境科学研究所, 南京 210042
南京信息工程大学 江苏省大气环境与装备技术协同创新中心, 南京 210044 
 
单正军 环境保护部 南京环境科学研究所, 南京 210042
南京信息工程大学 江苏省大气环境与装备技术协同创新中心, 南京 210044 
 
基金项目:中央级公益性科研院所 2016 年基本科研业务专项(农药环境污染防治监管制度研究);环境保护部农村与农业环境保护监管事业费项目
中文摘要:对目前中国主要蜜源作物上登记的农药品种进行了梳理,并采用现有的风险评估标准方法,对其中毒死蜱、吡虫啉等共61种杀虫剂对蜜蜂的风险进行了初级评估。结果表明:在58种喷雾施用的杀虫剂中,35种对蜜蜂的风险商值均大于1,风险为不可接受;其余23种的风险商值小于1,风险为可接受;所评估的6种土壤或种子处理内吸性杀虫剂中,5种对蜜蜂的风险商值大于1,风险为不可接受,仅氯虫苯甲酰胺的风险商值小于1,风险为可接受。但由于文中是以药剂在所登记作物上的单次最高施药剂量为暴露量进行的初级评估,并未考虑农药在花粉、花蜜中的降解及降雨引起的淋洗损耗,以及施药时间与作物花期之间的关系等影响因素,因而使得评估结果具有较大的保守性。研究结果一方面可为这些农药的合理使用和管理提供参考,另一方面提示了目前中国关于农药对蜜蜂的初级风险评估程序需进一步优化。
中文关键词:蜜源作物  杀虫剂  毒死蜱  吡虫啉  蜜蜂  风险评估  风险商值
 
Review of the pesticides registered on major nectar crops in China and the primary risk assessment of the insecticides to honey bees
Abstract:Pesticides currently registered on the major nectar crops in China were reviewed. Then primary risk assessments of 61 insecticides registered on these nectar crops such as chlorpyrifos, imidacloprid and etc. to honey bees were conducted according to the existing risk assessment method. The results showed that among the 58 insecticides which were applied by spraying, the risk quotient (RQ) values of 35 insecticides were all greater than one, which meant the risk of these insecticides to honey bees was unacceptable. And among 6 systemic insecticides which were applied through soil or seed treatment, the RQ values of 5 insecticides were greater than one, which meant the risk to honey bees was unacceptable, and the only pesticide of this type which had low risk to bees was chlorantraniliprole. But it is noteworthy that the exposure assessments in the current assessment procedure was based on the maximum single application rates of the pesticides and the following issues was not considered: the degradation of pesticides in pollen, nectar, the washoff of pesticides from foliar, the relation between application time and the plant flowering period and etc. Therefore the assessment results were rather conservative. These findings can be treated as references for the reasonable usage and management of these insecticides and also suggest that the primary risk assessment procedure of pesticide to bees currently used in China could be refined.
Key words:nectar crops  insecticides  chlorpyrifos  imidacloprid  honey bees  risk assessment  risk quotient
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