4种苦参碱制品对非靶标生物的毒性评价
投稿时间:2017-09-26      点此下载全文 HTML
引用本文:豆敏详,史晓玲,马志卿,张兴,吴志凤,等.4种苦参碱制品对非靶标生物的毒性评价[J].农药学学报,2018,20(1):49-57.
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豆敏详 西北农林科技大学 无公害农药研究服务中心, 陕西 杨凌 712100  
史晓玲 西北农林科技大学 无公害农药研究服务中心, 陕西 杨凌 712100  
马志卿 西北农林科技大学 无公害农药研究服务中心, 陕西 杨凌 712100
陕西省生物农药工程技术研究中心, 陕西 杨凌 712100 
mazhiqing2000@126.com 
张兴 西北农林科技大学 无公害农药研究服务中心, 陕西 杨凌 712100
陕西省生物农药工程技术研究中心, 陕西 杨凌 712100 
 
吴志凤 农业部 农药检定所, 北京 100125  
基金项目:绿色杀菌抗病毒剂及害虫生物防治剂创制开发(2014BAD23B01)
中文摘要:非靶标生物毒性评价是新农药开发应用的重要基础工作。为推进植物源农药苦参碱的科学合理使用,本研究评价并比较了苦参碱、苦参总生物碱、苦参乙醇浸膏和0.3%苦参碱水剂对生态环境中非靶标生物(鹌鹑、家蚕、蜜蜂、蚯蚓、蝌蚪、斑马鱼)的毒性及农作物(豇豆)对其的敏感性。结果表明:苦参碱、苦参总生物碱、苦参乙醇浸膏和0.3%苦参碱水剂对鹌鹑、家蚕、蜜蜂、蚯蚓、蝌蚪和斑马鱼的急性毒性均为低毒,对豇豆属于低风险性,且0.3%苦参碱水剂对家蚕无慢性毒性;但不同苦参碱制品对同种非靶标生物的毒性存在较大差异,苦参碱、苦参总生物碱、苦参乙醇浸膏和0.3%苦参碱水剂对鹌鹑的7 d-LD50值(均为有效成分,下同)分别为512、504、>1 000和 >3 000 mg/kg鹌鹑;对家蚕的96 h-LC50值分别为 >3 000、1 300、>5 000和821 mg/L;对蜜蜂的48 h-LC50值分别为1 145、1 361、>3 000和337 mg/L;对蚯蚓的14 d-LC50值分别为549、428、564和 >1 000 mg/kg土壤;对蝌蚪的48 h-LC50值分别为 >100、>100、263和15 mg/L;对斑马鱼的96 h-LC50分别为85、65、193和20 mg/L;其中苦参乙醇浸膏的毒性最低。可见,苦参碱制品对环境生物较为安全,具有良好的生态效益。
中文关键词:苦参碱  非靶标生物  植物源农药  毒性  安全性评价
 
Toxicity evaluation of 4 matrine-based products on non-target organisms
Abstract:Environmental safety assessment of non-tartarget organisms is essential for the development and application of new pesticides. In order to guide the rational use of matrine-based botanical pesticide products, the toxicities of 4 matrine-based products (matrine, total alkaloid, mtrine extract and 0.3% matrine AS) on 6 kinds of non-target organism and the effect of succeeding crop (cowpea) were investigated and compared. The results indicated that the acute toxicities of matrine, total alkaloid, mtrine extract and 0.3% matrine AS were low for quail, silkworm, bee, earthworm, tadpole and zebra fish. And these products were also low risk to cowpea. 0.3% Matrine AS has no chronic toxicity to the silkworm. But there were significant differences among toxicities of different products on the same species.The 7 d-LD50 value of matrine, total alkaloid, mtrine extract and 0.3% matrine AS were 512, 504, >1 000 and >3 000 mg a.i./kgquail on quail, respectively; >3 000, 1 300, >5 000 and 821 mg a.i./L on silkworm (96 h-LC50), respectively; 1 145, 1 361, >3 000 and 337 mg a.i./L on bee(48 h-LC50), respectively; 549, 428, 564 and >1 000 mg a.i./kg soil on earthworm(14 d-LC50), respectively; >100, >100, 263 and 15 mg a.i./L on tadpole(48 h-LC50), respectively; and 85, 65, 193 and 20 mg a.i./L on zebra fish(96 h-LC50), respectively. Among 4 products, mtrine extract had the lowest toxicity. Thus, matrine-based products are safe to non-target organisms, and will exhibit good ecological benefits in field application.
Key words:matrine  non-target organisms  botanical pesticide  toxicity  safety evaluation
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